We live in an era where there is a tremendous increase in population as well as in diseases.
Do you even know about the fact that, Each year 151,600 people die each day and almost more than 60% people face death because of Diseases?
10 most dangerous diseases
AIDS / HIV
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or Human immunodeficiency virus is mainly a disease of the Human immune system.This virus slowly starts affecting the immune system of the human body thus resulting into worst effects such as death.Sometimes it is followed by a prolonged period without symptoms.With the increase in illness, infection interferes with the immune system .However people with strong immune systems might experience the illness after a longer time.
Patients suffering from AIDS are treated with often mild and strong medications but have no permanent cure to it.
This is another sexually Tra infection caused by spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.This infection contains four stages i.e. primary, secondary, latent and tertiary. The primary stage start with a in effective ulceration on the skin.The secondary stage will cause rashes on palms of hands n soles of feet.However the Latent stage has no serious effects but tertiary stage will include neurological or cardiac symptoms.The syphilis infection has increased since millenium after its combination with HIV.The main cause behind this rapid increase is unsafe sexual practice among men who have sex with other men thus without using protection.
Syphilis can be treated with effective antibiotics including intramuscular Pennicilin G or Ceftriaxone.For those who have severe pennicilin allergy are treated with oral doxycycline or azithromycin which indeed have worse side effects too.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans caused by parasitic protozoans mainly plasmodium.Malaria is diagnosed by microscopic blood examination.In modern times “polymerase chain reaction” is used to detect the infected DNA.The symptoms of malaria begin with 7-25 days infection and viral diseases. It may include headache, fever, shivering, joint pain, vomiting, anemia, jaundice, hemoglobin in urine, convulsions, retinal damage etc. However it is hard to detect malaria without diagnosis as its initial symptoms include shivering and fever .Its complications are worse that cause respiratory distress, and is observed more in children than in adults.Accute respiratory distress occur more in pregnant women. Malaria in pregnant women cause still births, infant mortality and low birth .
Malaria can be treated with anti malarial medications thus depending on the type and severity of the disease.Uncomplicated malaria is often treated with oral medications.There is tremendous increase in deaths caused by malaria since 2010. This infection start with a viral fever and thus end with death in cases of severe weakness and strong treatments which the human body can’t resist and finally quit.
This is an acute inflamation of protective membranes covering brain and spinal cord known as Meninges.The inflamation is caused by infection of viruses, bacteria or other micro organisms.Its symptoms include headache and neck stiffness associated with fever, altered conciousness and confusion, vomiting and inability to tolerate light and loud noises.
Meningities is diagnosed by lumber puncture in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal and cerebrospinal fluid is extracted that envelopes the brain and spinal cord.The meningitis is treated with administered antibiotics and antiviral drugs.Corticosteroids are also used to prevent complications.
Meningitis can lead to serious complications such as deafness, epilepsy, hydrocephalus and cognitive deficits when not treated quickly.Meningitis can be life threatening because if inflamation’s proximity to the brain and spinal cord, and is therefore always considered as medical emergency.
It is characterised by prolonged contradiction of stretched muscle fibres.The main cause of infection is contamination of wound.The infection increases with muscle spasms developing in the jaw and in other parts of the body including chest, neck, back, abdominal muscles and buttocks.Prolonged muscular action causes sudden, powerful and painful contractions of muscle groups i.e. Tetany.This might cause fractures and muscle tears.Other symptoms include drooling, fever, excessive sweating, hand or foot spasms, swallowing difficulty, uncontrolled urination, irtitability etc.
Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination with tetanuw toxoid.MIld cases of tetanus can be treated with tetanus imnoglobin IV, metronidazole IV and diazepam.However severe cases require to get admitted in Intensive Care with strong medications.Proper nutrition is required to recover from tetanus The recovery takes a month or two as the body take time to regenerate destroyed nerve axon terminals.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, which results in increased contractibility of surrounding smooth muscles.It is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.The environmental factors are smoking during pregnancy, traffic pollution, high ozone levels.However genetic factors involve risk out of family medical history.The common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness and shortness of breath.This can also be referred to an asthma attack or acute asthma.
The medication include two classes
- Quick relief medications – used to treat acute symptoms.The salbutamol metered dose inhaler is used for quick relief from asthma attacks.
- Long term control medications – used to prevent further exacerbation.The fluticasone propionate metered dose inhaler is used for long term control.
The occurance of asthma has increased since 2010 and it have resulted in 250,000 deaths.Therefore it is necessary to take precautions inorder to freely breathe .The precautions mainly include avoiding inhale of smoke,non.selective beta blockers and sulphite containing foods.
Also known as TB is an infectious disease caused by various stains of mycobacteria.This disease affects the lungs but can effect other parts of the body too.It can easily spread through air when people suffering from TB, cough or sneeze or transmit respiratory fluids in air.
Its general symptoms include fever, night sweats, weight loss,apetite loss, chills etc. The patients suffer from chest pain in extreme conditions.TB is diagnosed by a chest X-ray and multiple sputum cultures for acid bacilli .However nucleic acid amplification tests and adenosine deaminas allow rapid diagnosis of TB.
The disease need to be prevented effectively as it has worse effects when there is increase in infection.
TB can be prevented by bacillus Calmette guerin vaccine to be given in childhood.Also by preventing to breathe in, in the environment around TB patients.
Measles is an infection of the respiratory system that is caused by a virus called paramyxovirus of genus morbillivirus.Its symptoms include fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, skin rash.The skin rash is the best known symptom for measles.
Measles spread through respiration, it is highly contagious.People with weak immunity and sharing living speace with the infected person catch measles quickly.Its complications include diarrha to more serious ones such as pneumonia and sometimes corneal ulceration.
The risk factors of measles include-
Malnutrition, Pregnancy , Vitamin A deficiency and underlying immunodeficiency.
The prevention of measles can be done by giving vaccine, mainly MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella) to the children by the age of 18.However there is no particular treatment for measles but use of vitamin A is a treatment far been investigated.The worst effects may cause death of the patient due to giant cell pneumonia or due to brain injury.
Diarrhea or Diarrhoea is a condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day.It is most commonly due to viral gastroenteritis with rotavirus.Various toxins such as mushroom poisoning and drugs can also cause acute diarrhea.
There are two types if diarrhea namely –
- Secretory – This type of diarrhea include increase in active secretion or inhibition of absorption.The cause is cholera toxin thay stimulates secretion of anions.In this type of diarrhea intestinal fluid secretion is isotonic with plasma even during fasting.
- Osmotic – This occus when too much water is drawn in bowels.It can also be a result of maldigestion.
A rotavirus vaccine decrease diarrhea.Ptobiotics also decrease the risk of diarrhea.Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) can also b used to prevent diarrhea.It is necessary to maintain eating habits to prevent diarrhea.
Cancer is a broad group of diseases that involves cell growth. Cells divide and multiply uncontrollably thus forming malignant tumors. Not all tumors are cancerous.The cancer may also spread through lymphatic system or bloodstream.
Cancer can be detected by observing symptoms, screening tess and medical imaging.It may be followed by diagnosing tissue sample.There are many causes of cancer that include tobacco, dietary factors, exposure to radiation, obesity and environmental pollutants.However cancer can be genetic too.
Cancer can be treated by chemotherapy sessions, radiation therapy and surgery.Cancer can effect almost all age groups and its effects are always worse when not diagnosed and treated on time.Cancer can be prevented by eating more vegetables, fruits, wholegrains, avoiding meet, mainting healthy weight, and by being vaccinated.
These are the most dangerous diseases that must diagnosed and treated well on time. Bringing minute change in our lifestyle and becoming health concious can help us stay healthy and away from diseases.